*Lubna Khalil, **Binish Fatima Malik, ***Suhail Anwar Malik, ****Osama Faisal


Vocabulary Learning Strategies (VLS) play a critical role in acquiring vocabulary and are considered as the foundation of language learning. This study examines the most frequent VLS by used Pakistani ESL (English as a Second Language) students in higher and secondary education that is an area of a notable gap in research. Research indicated that VLS facilitate vocabulary acquisition, however, little is investigated about the specific VLS employed by ESL learners in Pakistan's unique linguistic and cultural context. This study identifies the VLS utilized by Pakistani ESL students and analyzes how their cultural and educational backgrounds influence the selection and effectiveness of these strategies. To find out the most used set of VLS adopted by the learners, an e-questionnaire was conducted on 148 Pakistani ESL students. Furthermore, a thematic analysis was carried out on qualitative data gathered by in-depth interviews of 12 English language teachers. The findings show that generally the teachers have positive attitude towards the use of different VLS in language classroom using eclectic teaching approach in compared to traditional teaching.  They recognize the cultural and educational diversity among Pakistani ESL students and employ appropriate VLS for vocabulary teaching. The study also highlights the challenges in vocabulary instruction, the need for evaluation and adaptation of updated teaching approaches to optimize vocabulary learning. The study findings may contribute to the development of more effective, culturally tailored vocabulary instruction methods, enhancing English language proficiency for Pakistani ESL students.


How to Cite
*Lubna Khalil, **Binish Fatima Malik, ***Suhail Anwar Malik, ****Osama Faisal. (2024). VOCABULARY LEARNING STRATEGIES BY PAKISTANI ESL LEARNERS: CULTURAL INSIGHTS AND EDUCATIONAL PRACTICES. Harf-O-Sukhan, 8(1), 547-561. Retrieved from https://harf-o-sukhan.com/index.php/Harf-o-sukhan/article/view/1176