Mudassir Ullah Khan,Aurangzaib,Rakhshanda Sartaj,Dr. EhsanUllah Danish


The current research study has been started for analyzing the causes and effects of alienation on the human psyche by applying Karl Marx’s theory of alienation to the work of Harold Pinter The Birthday Party, showing how a working or lower class (proletariat) person is being alienated, living in a capitalist class (bourgeoisie) society. Marx shows the consequences of social disparity and class division which could be in the form of estrangement or alienation of one person. Addressing the facts in the current article, by deeply analyzing Marx's theory (1844), discussing man’s state of mind is being alienated from one's nature and society. Marx's theory has been taken from his most renowned work The Economic and Philosophic Manuscript of 1844, which was explained in detail by Istvan Meszaros in his book ‘Marx’s theory of alienation’ where labour/working class group alienated from their jobs, products (essential needs), from their essence and others(society), is being discussed. The Birthday Party is selected to give evidence of man’s alienation or estrangement, where the main protagonist is suffering from depression and anxiety due to being neglected by society and becoming alien not from others but from his essence. He is not treated well by upper-class group people around him, due to his unemployment and not being up to their standards. Other minor characters also become victims of alienation and estrangement throughout the play. Every capitalist and class-division society is responsible for the isolation and alienation of one person, mostly shown in British societies. The findings of this article provide insight into the social circumstances of the average person where lower social classes are oppressed by superior classes, which makes them estranged and alien. Close textual analysis and qualitative research has been used for the present study.


How to Cite
Mudassir Ullah Khan,Aurangzaib,Rakhshanda Sartaj,Dr. EhsanUllah Danish. (2024). KARL MARX’S ALINEATION WITH REFERENCE TO SOCIAL ESTRANGEMENT IN HAROLD PINTER’S THE BIRTHDAY PARTY. Harf-O-Sukhan, 8(1), 248-262. Retrieved from https://harf-o-sukhan.com/index.php/Harf-o-sukhan/article/view/1088