Pakistan, a geographically diverse nation nestled between Central Asia and the Indian subcontinent, grapples with a significant environmental challenge: pollution. This multifaceted issue encompasses air, water, and land contamination, posing a dire threat to the country's ecosystems and public health. This review aims to comprehensively analyze the sources, types, and consequences of pollution in Pakistan, highlighting its ramifications on human health and well-being. This review critically examines the multifaceted challenge of pollution in Pakistan, analyzing its detrimental impact on both the environment and public health. Drawing upon existing research and data, the paper delves into the major types of pollution plaguing the country, including air, water, and soil contamination. It identifies key sources of pollution, such as industrial emissions, agricultural practices, inadequate waste management, and rapid urbanization. The review further explores the intricate links between environmental degradation and public health concerns. It examines the direct and indirect health consequences of exposure to polluted air, water, and soil, highlighting respiratory illnesses, waterborne diseases, developmental disorders, and various cancers. The paper also considers the socio-economic repercussions of pollution, including decreased productivity, increased medical expenses, and vulnerability of marginalized communities.
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